As of 2014, Indonesians make up 3.46% of world total population, and Indonesia is the fourth most populous country after China, India and the United States.

Despite a fairly effective family planning program that has been in place since the 1967, for the decade ending in 2010, Indonesia's population growth was 1.49 percent. At that rate, Indonesia's population is projected to surpass the present population of the United States and would - if the current US population did not rise - become the world's third biggest after China and India by 2043. The family planning already revitalised based on the 1967 program to avoid Indonesia becoming the world's third most populous country.

With a population of 150 million, Java is home to 51 percent of the Indonesian population, and is the most populous island on Earth. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was also the centre of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically, economically and culturally.

Other major island of Indonesia are Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua that took other 49 percent of Indonesian population. There are also other small populated island(s) such as Bali, Bangka, Madura, Nias, Maluku, Lesser Sunda Islands, Riau Islands and others.